Refers to electronic commerce between
businesses. The term emerged to describe conducting business between two
more more companies over the internet,
but in fact, refers to any automated, computer-enabled exchange of business data
between one or more companies. B2B is contrasted to traditional modes such
as telephone, snail mail and face-to-face, and to other computer-enabled modes
such as A2A,
B2C, and B2P.
- Business-to-Consumer. Refers to electronic commerce between a business
and an individual consumer.
- Business-to-Person. Not a widely-used term, but some have used it to
refer to interactions between a business and an individual that is not an
electronic commerce interaction (not
- Systems that handle companies' internal processing and computing tasks, such
as inventory, receivables, and order processing;
applications that are inside a
company's intranet firewall.
-High-speed routers that connect several powerful computers
- that link the interconnect points. In the U.S., the
backbone of the Internet is often considered the NSFNet, a government funded link between
a handful of supercomputer sites across the country. Backbones
make up the fastest and most direct routes for data to take on the internet.
Generally means that a subsequent version of a program or system will support
all of the functionality and specific interfaces that enable programs developed
for an earlier version to execute properly when the subsequent version is
- Measurement in cycles per second (hertz) or in bits per second (bps) of the quantity
of information that is able to flow through a channel.
Semantic Unit (BSU)
- A semantically complete data element that acts as an attribute of a data class
or entity type in a Business Information System. The reference point for BSU is the
Semantic Repository (BSR).
- The encoding of alphanumeric characters by a series of varying thickness bars to be
read by a scanning device.
- Program or set of commands that can be run without any kind of user intervention.
The speed at which modems transfer data. One baud is roughly equal to one bit per
second. It takes eight bits to make up one letter or character. Modems rarely transfer
data at exactly the same speed as their listed baud rate because of static or computer
problems. More expensive modems use systems, such as Microcom Network Protocol (MNP),
which can correct for these errors or which "compress" data to speed up
- Measurement standard used when testing the performance of different brand names of
equipment to rate them.
Materials (BOM) _ a/k/a Material List. A list what materials are
needed to build a product, how many of each component is needed, and average
production yield for each component.
BIM Warehouse - A facility for the storage and re-use of
Business Information Modeling (BIM) activity and data models.
- Refers to the way in which an application (requesting application) can refer
to objects in another application.
binding is when the binding occurs at compile time - the reference to the
object(s) in the other application are hard-coded in the requesting
binding is when the binding is selected at run-time.
- A type of synchronous(1) communication
for binary data, all but obsolete (which is why you can't find it in
BITNet - Another,
academically oriented, international computer network, which uses a different
set of computer instructions to move data. It is easily accessible to Internet
users through e-mail, and provides a large number of conferences and databases.
Its name comes from "Because It's Time."
Time - The amount of time that elapses before an investment starts realizing
a cost savings or profit. This should be considered when analyzing a
Return on Investment (ROI).
For example, if implementing a new application is estimated to have a positive
return on investment, but is not going to start realizing profit for 5 years,
and you are reasonably certain that you will have to replace the application
within 5 years, it may not be a good investment of resources. Other
factors must be examined, such as potential for loss of business.
- A device that forwards data from one network
segment to another. Bridges are faster than
routers because the just forward data via
the next available path without trying to determine what the fastest route might
Mortar - Used to describe a traditional business interacting
with customers face-to-face in a physical location; manual commerce. Term
origin comes from the fact that bricks and mortar are common building materials
in some places. Californians might have coined different
terminology, since mortar in bricks and masonry dissolves under even moderate
shaking; we might have ended up with the phrase "steel and stucco." c.f.
Click and Order.
Browser - A software program
used to look at World Wide Web pages.
- What your e-mail does when it cannot get to its recipient -- it bounces back to you --
unless it goes off into the ether, never to be found again.
A series of processes, each having a clearly understood purpose, involving more than
one organization extending over a period of time, realized through the exchange of
information and directed towards some mutually agreed upon goal.
Area - An area of a business consisting of a strongly interrelated collection of functions,
data and information flows. Example: Materials Management, Production, Finance.
function - Un upper level business activity that is achieved via the performance of component
activities. Examples: Manufacturing, Shipping
Business information system
- A set of business practices, procedures and processes that are implemented by computer
Intelligence (BI) - The broad category of information, processes and/or
solutions that allow an enterprise to make business decisions. Business
Intelligence encompasses tools and methods such as
Decision Support Systems,
Intelligent Agents, and others.
- A pictorial view of a
process at a high level.
- Should clearly
identify the parties involved and how events flow.
- Ideal end goal: A user can look at the business model and
supporting documentation and know what they need to do to implement the chosen business
See also When is it a component business process model and when is it a
Open Applications Group's
architecture for business process models. The
architecture used to communicate messages or business documents between software
applications or components.
The design of the Business Object
Document (BOD) includes a noun, which corresponds to an object handle, and a
verb, which corresponds to a method.
Business practices - The major management and control systems operated by a business organization.
- The procedures that are employed to utilize the Business Processes in carrying out the
- A set of logically related tasks performed to
achieve a desired business outcome.
- Macro level - fundamental, technology
independent, application-independent process
- Micro level - implementable,
technology-specific and data standard-specific process
Process Re-engineering (BPR) - Radical analysis and redesign of business
processes in order to achieve dramatic ROI, performance and quality
improvements, etc. BPR was the hot buzzword in the early 1990's and has
now been subsumed by concepts like ERP and
signal - Messages that "signal" the current state of a business transaction.
A business signal has as its subject a business process activity or business
document. For example a Receipt
Acknowledgment indicates that the state of a document has changed from
"sent" to "received". The business signal does not address the
business contents of the subject activity or document.
- A predefined set of Business
activities which is initiated by an organization to
accomplish an explicitly shared business goal and terminated upon recognition of one of
the agreed conclusions by all the involved organizations although some of the recognition
may be implicit.
Buyer - Anyone who purchases goods or
Size of memory space needed to store a single character, which is usually 8 bits. The
computer's memory size is measured in kilobytes; 1 kilobyte = 1,024 bytes.