Daemon - A background program that runs on a
computer expecting to receive requests from other computers to perform some
action. For example, an HTTP
daemon runs on a web server, just
waiting for someone's browser (an HTTP
client) to send a request. If the
request is valid (e.g. well-formed HTML was used to generate the request),
the daemon interprets the request and forwards it to the appropriate program
- A representation of facts, concepts or instructions in a formalized manner
suitable for communication, interpretation or processing by human beings or
by automatic means. [ISO 9735]
Data attribute - Structure
information that establishes the context of the data and gives it meaning. Also
used to refer to the descriptive structure information of a field in a data
compression - Process by which the contents of a data file are changed to
enable the information to take up less disk space. This procedure eliminates
repeating items in the data and has a code to show different lengths for certain
character sequences. Data compression can make a regular text file about half
its original size.
Data Confidentiality -
Security, policies, and practices, which assure that data collected by or
offered to a Web site will be held in confidence.
Dictionary - A repository that
stores meta-data (data about data). A data dictionary can typically stores
field names, their descriptions/semantic meaning, relationships among fields,
origin, usage, field types, sizes and formats, and so on. A data
dictionary can also store aliases. data models, record layouts, data flows, data
structures, and other attributes.
- Basic units of information in the standards containing a set of values that
represents a singular fact. They may be single-character codes, literal
descriptions, numeric values, or may have a specific size, type, and range.
- A unit of data which, in a
certain context, is considered indivisible. [ISO 2382/4]
- UN/EDIFACT says a unit of data
for which the identification, description and value representation have been
specified. [ISO 9735]
element attribute - A defined characteristic of a data element.
Data element directory - A
listing of identified, named and described data element attributes, with
specifications as to how the corresponding data element values shall be
represented. [ISO 9735]
Data element length - Range,
minimum to maximum, of the number of character positions available to represent
the value of a data element. A data element may be of variable length with range
from minimum to maximum, or it may be of fixed length in which the minimum is
equal to the maximum.
Data element name - One or
more words in a natural language identifying a data element concept. [ISO 9735]
Data element reference number
- Reference number assigned to a data element as a unique identifier.
Data element representation
- The format of a data item. Examples:
- "yyyymmdd" for date
- "last, first" for representation
of a name
Data element requirement
designator - Code defining the need for a data element value to appear in
the segment if the segment is transmitted. The codes are mandatory (M),
operational (O), or conditional(C).
Data element separator - A
character used to separate data elements in a variable length data segment. [ISO
element tag - A unique identifier for a data element in a data element
directory. [ISO 9735]
element type - Data element may be one of six types
- identifier string
Data element value - The
specific entry of an identified data element represented as specified in a
data element directory.
Exchange Service Provider - A third party that performs gateway
functions as a service. A company using a DESP generates or receives
whatever file formats are built natively into the back-end application to
the DESP, who performs the conversion (translation/mapping/parsing),
validation, and routing to or from trading partners, including managing
partner profiles. Most VANs have
always offered these types of services.
Data integrity - Accuracy of file data. Data
integrity ensures that the data are pure and not corrupted.
Data link - Actual
connection through which data can be transferred from one computer device to
another. This type of link is used to connect any two or more devices that have
the capability to send or receive data.
Data Maintenance (DM) - Term
used to describe the X12 processes of evaluating, approving and recording
revisions to the standards based on Work Requests. DM is the term used to
identify a Work Request after a DM number has been assigned. See Work Request,
Data Mart - See expanded
Data Mining - A
Business Intelligence method that looks for hidden patterns in data to allow the building
detailed profiles that may or not be sold to third parties. Also
refers to solutions that perform data mining processes.
Data transfer - Process of
moving data from one physical location to another either through internal means
in a computer by transferring data from memory to disk, disk to tape, or hard
disk to floppy, or through external means by transferring data between computers
on a network or through a communications link.
Data unit - A segment,
segment group, composite data element, data element as defined in a directory
and its message type specifications.
Data Universal Numbering System
(DUNS) - Nine-position company identification code issued by the Dun and
Bradstreet Corporation to identify businesses in its automated files.
Data Warehouse - See
expanded definition of
Date/Time Stamp - To append
or attach a digital notation, such as a signature or certificate, which
indicates the date, time, and identity of the person appending or attaching the
Support System (DSS) - Software designed to aid in decision making; the
architecture generally relies on one or more data bases that feed into a
specialized data warehouse that captures information that will be queried and
analyzed. See also Business Intelligence.
- For DSS purposes, "real
time" is a myth
- To achieve proper synchronization
between event and state data, file creation must occur when the system is
stable, and preferably at rest
That usually means
nightly backup time
Which happens in 24
different global time zones
Which means you are doing
well to produce a global, synchronized portrait of the supply chain
every 24 hours
Decryption - Decoding of encrypted or specially
coded information to allow use of the data in a normal manner. This is a form of
guarding information to help ensure limited access.
Dedicated line - See
Delimiter - A character used for syntactical separation of data. [ISO 9735]
Also known as a
separator character or
service character. A delimiter marks the beginning or
end of a string of data. It may be a single character or a string of
characters. To avoid misinterpretation, the character used as the
delimiter should not be part of the data stream itself. If the delimiter
must be used for its original purpose as part of the data, a
Release Character may be
used if the syntax rules of the given computer language allow it. In
HTML/XML "Escape Sequences"
are used. See also the
Character Sets Table.
- Information concerning forecasted or firm requirements over a future time
period; represents what a customer wishes to purchase and implies that the
customer has the means to make the purchases. The reason that business
processes are as complex as they are (see
Order Model 1, for
instance) is that demand and
virtually never in balance.
of Service Attack - One, or a series of illegal actions on the part of
hackers that prevent access to Web sites, in effect shutting the site down
Depositor - One who deposits something into an account. Used in
logistics to describe a party (client) that contracts with a third-party
warehouse to manage their inventory. The term "depositor" applies
regardless of who physically deposits inventory into the warehouse; if a buyer
contracts with a third-party warehouse, the buyer is the depositor, even though
the seller launches the physical shipment to the warehouse. Just as an
employee may have her employer directly deposit her pay into her bank
accounts, from the bank's perspective the employee is the depositor - the owner
of the account.
Design Win - From a broad
perspective, a "design win" has been
achieved whenever a customer, prospective customer or customer's agent (such as
a distributor) notifies a supplier
that its product has been selected for integration into the customer's product.
At this broader level, there are usually financial incentives involved
beyond the securing of the customer's business. More specifically, "design
win" refers to a program whereby a supplier offers
incentives in the form of bonuses, rebates,
Ship-from-Stock and Debit authorizations
and/or off book pricing when its product is designed into another company's product and
agreed upon sales quotas or other conditions are met. If the supplier is
working directly with the end-customer, the supplier's sales force achieves the
"design win" when the customer designs in the product; the customer
gets financial awards in the form of rebates, debit authorizations and/or
special pricing once conditions for
incentives are met; if a distributor is brokering the design work, the
distributor achieves the "design win" when the distributor's customer designs in
the supplier's product, and financial awards realized when the conditions for incentives are met. See
Scenario 2 - Design Win.
Service - A connection which
uses the public telephone network to make a connection to a
network. If you are using an analog
modem connected to your
telephone line to connect to an ISP, you are not making an
internet connection directly. You are connecting to the ISP's network, and
issuing commands to the ISP's server,
through a shell, and the ISP's server communicates with the internet connections for you.
The good news is that dial-up is almost universally available. However,
while analog modems today can deliver speeds up to 56.6 kilobytes per second,
which is fine for a casual user, it is too slow for a power user wanting to
download large files or a telecommuter or business wanting to use on-line remote
collaboration tools. Many people are replacing dial-up connections with
ISDN or DSL.
Large companies with high internet traffic volumes are increasingly returning to
leased lines for communicating with
VANs and ISPs.
Dial-up connection types include PPP and
Digital Certificate - A password protected
file that includes information, including the holder's public encryption
keys, that can be used to verify the Digital Signature
of the holder. Digital certificates are issued by certificate
authorities, and are valid only for a limited time period. The digital
certificate itself contains the digital signature of the certificate
authority, so that the recipient can verify that the certificate is real.
Digital Communications - A method of transmitting signals where data is
represented by binary digits - zeroes and ones - making all signals
fixed-length. Opposite of analog.
Digital Envelope - The
encrypted private key used to decode an accompanying encrypted message, such as
financial information necessary to transact an on-line purchase order. The
sender's software first randomly generates the private key and uses it to
encrypt the data, and then encrypts the private key itself using the recipient's
public key. The message and digital envelope (the encrypted key) are sent to the
recipient. The recipient uses his/her private key to decrypt the message
envelope and then uses the decrypted private key to decode the actual message.
Digital Marketplace - See
Digital Signature - A digital code that authenticates - uniquely identifies - the sender.
Digital signatures can be attached to electronic purchase orders, contracts,
email, etc. They were awarded legal status in the United States in July 2000.
See also Digital Certificate.
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
- A technology that uses existing copper wiring found in almost every home or
office to provide a high-speed connection to the
internet. DSL can also be used to
connect to a LAN. Special hardware
is attached at both ends of the line to allow data to transmit over the wires at
a far greater speed than the normal analog speed of your
POTS. A DSL is convenient
for individual households and small offices in that you only need one phone line
to carry both voice and data signals.
The technology differs from
ISDN lines in that it can
send both analog and digital signals over a single phone line. ISDN
is digital only and has to convert analog voice phone calls to digital
signals. With DSL, analog and digital signals can coexist because
analog signals for voice communications only require a fraction of the
copper wires that make up a phone line. The limitation of the analog
signal carried on those wires, not the wires, has kept phone lines from
delivering greater data transfer speeds. Sending digital signals
over copper wires breaks that barrier. When you install DSL, you put
a special filter on the lines connected to telephones which filters out
the signals being used for DSL.
is a commonly used protocol to
create the connection between your DSL
modem and your ISP.
However, with PPP connection speeds vary, so some people prefer the fixed
speed of an ISDN or
Digital Wallets - Electronic commerce software that holds confidential
information in hidden form, often used in conjunction with electronic
Direct Goods - Raw materials for specific manufacturing operations, the
purchase of which is usually considered "mission-critical," and is often handled
by computerized resource planning systems and specific procurement personnel.
Directory Version - An
indication of the issue of a Directory.
Recovery Plan - In business computing, a plan that describes what to do to
keep the business running in the event of a disaster. Business functions
are categorized so that the most critical applications and processes are
recovered the soonest. Disaster Recovery Plans may include details for
bringing processes back online at another location, and include details about
hardware and software requirements, and step-by-step instructions for the
Disintermediation - The process that occurs when a business removes
intermediaries, such as brokers, distributors, and agents, and replaces the
channel with direct selling to customers. See also
Re-intermediation. This has
occurred as manufacturers have discovered why they used intermediaries in the
first place: The customer service resources needed multiply with the
number of orders handled, and direct sales means not only handling the big
orders from the golden goose customers, but also handling many small orders,
shipping, returns, complaints, etc.
Semantic Unit (DSU) - A data component in a traditional EDI syntax such as
EDIFACT or X12. There are two kinds of Dispersed Semantic Units:
- Data carriers (which contain
the actual data)
- Qualifiers (which are
codesets adding meaning to the value of the data carrier).
When the meaning of values of a
series of qualifiers are applied additively against a Data Carrier, the
meaning of the value of the data carrier can be related to a BSU.
Distributor - A business
that buys, warehouses, ships, invoices and resells; a party that acts as an
intermediary in order and inventory management. Distributors in
high-tech industries also perform some of the same value-add services
handled by Value-Added Resellers,
such as device configuration and/or programming, and systems configuration
Often Distributors have a franchise relationship with one or more suppliers.
often use the services of Distributors to sell their products. The
Component Supplier may have their sales departments focus on a few big accounts,
and have the distributor manage many medium-to-small accounts. See also
Document - A data carrier and the data recorded on it, that is generally
permanent and that can be read by man or machine. [ISO 2382/4].
- In the legacy world: A
set of text and/or graphical data organized and formatted for direct human
interpretation; the record of an event or thing, such as an invoice.
- In the high tech world: Data
about an event or thing captured electronically in one or more
Object Model (DOM) - 1) An
API for handling the parsing (mapping/translating)
or interpreting of an XML
file. It is an alternative to the Simple API
for XML (SAX). Both have advantages and disadvantages. See
more under XML Parsing.
2) All the objects that make up a web site - HTML pages, images, scripts, etc. -
are sometimes referred to as the site's Document Object Model.
Definition (DTD) - A type of file that information about how markup tags
should be interpreted in an associated XML
or SGML document. DTD
files have some weaknesses in that they can't accurately represent data types
and conditions. DTDs for XML are slowly being superceded by
- 1) A sphere of knowledge. A domain expert is someone who has extensive
knowledge and understanding of a given domain, e.g. a Order Management
domain expert. 2) In mathematics and database management, the range
of valid values for a field. 3) A subdivision of the internet; a grouping of
computers. The domain is identified in the last part of an Internet
URL or internet e-mail address, such as "news.com." Without
domain name registrations, you would have to remember each website's IP address.
For example, to access the U.S. White House, you'd have to type "http://184.108.40.206,"
and to access EIDX, you'd have to type "http://220.127.116.11."
Domain names allow you to use
Level Domain is the very last and most important portion of the
internet address. For non-U.S. addresses, the top level domain
identifies the country, and the next level domain identifes the status of the
organization. In the U.S., the top-level domain generally identifies the
status of the organization. Multinational companies usually use the U.S.
domain nomenclature. Examples"
.uk = United Kingdom
.co.uk = Commercial Business,
.com = Commercial Business
(U.S. or multinational)
.edu = Educational Institution
.org = Non-profit Organization
.mil = U.S. Military
.gov = With no second-level
domain identifier, refers to U.S. Government
.ca.gov = California
.net = Network Operators
Domain Name the part of the internet address that identifies the
owning organization. qualified by the Top Level
EIDX's domain name is "eidx.org"
The domain name "eidx.com" is
Model - 1) Describes all the functions and methods, objects, classes,
data (instances), requirements, relationships (associations, constraints) and variations
(e.g. supply chains, geographies, processes, roles) in a specific
domain. A domain model addresses the
requirements for a wide range of business processes. See also
Domain Name Server (DNS)
- This type of server maps
TCP/IP numbers such as 18.104.22.168 to a
more easily remembered name, such as www.eidx.org.
Thus, when you type www.eidx.org into your
browser, it goes out to the DNS server
you specified when you installed dial-up networking
(or TCP/IP services if you have direct
internet connection) and searches for a matching TCP/IP address. If it
finds a DNS entry for the name you typed in, you see the EIDX web site. If
not, an error message is returned to your browser window. Every
domain name on the web
has a corresponding TCP/IP address that maps to the actual Web site. When you
set up a site, you have your ISP add a DNS
entry to their DNS servers. This entry gets replicated across the internet in a
matter of hours, and, once fully replicated, you can reach your Web site from
any Internet connection in the world.
Dot - In
the not too distant past, when you wanted to impress the net veterans you meet at parties,
you said "dot"
instead of "period," for example: "My address is
John at Snazzy-Startup
dot com." These days, of course, being in dot
com doesn't particularly impress anyone on this planet ;-)
- When a public-access site runs into technical trouble, and you can no longer gain
access to it, it's down. If the site is up, but
your machine won't boot up, it's you that's down.
- Copy a file from a host system to your computer.
Also refers to the process of transmitting a program from a host or main
computer to another computer at a remote site.
Draft Proposed American National Standard (DPANS)
- An X12 Draft Standard for Trial Use which has been approved by the developing
subcommittee, the ASC X12 Steering Committee, and the Procedures Review Board as a candidate for American National Standard status. Notification to ANSI of such approval
initiates a public review process which, after comment resolution, leads to publication of
a new or revised American National Standard.
Draft Standard For Trial Use (DSTU)
- An X12 standard developed under ANSI Procedures for the Development and Coordination
of American National Standards and approved by ASC X12 for publication and trial use
implementation. Following this trial-use period, the DSTU, revised as necessary, may be
submitted to ANSI for approval as an American National Standard (ANS).
Drop Ship -
A process where a buyer places an
order with a supplier for goods that are to be delivered to a third party.
All the financial transactions are handled by the buyer and supplier.
Goods marked for drop-ship should not affect the buyer's inventory counts.
- Example: An manufacturer's
customer may order a repair/replacement part, and the manufacturer may send an
order to the supplier indicating that the part should be shipped directly to
the manufacturer's customer.
- Example: An OEM may
outsource assembly of a product to a contract manufacturer. The OEM may
order component parts from their supplier and have them drop-shipped to the
Due Diligence - Exercising judgment,
care, prudence, and activities that a person would be reasonably expected to perform under
particular circumstances, usually when transacting business.
Dynamic Call - An on-line catalog where
prices are continuously updated, sometimes in direct response to market price-points.