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EIDX Glossary

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This letter last updated 08 November 2002

Hang - When a modem or other connection device fails to hang up, your session is hung up.   It crashed.  If there's no obvious way out, reboot.

Hacker - On the Net, unlike among the general public, this is not necessarily a bad person; it is simply somebody who enjoys stretching hardware and software to their limits, seeing just what they can get their computers to do. What many people call hackers, net.denizens refer to as crackers.

Handshake - 1)  Two modems trying to connect do this to agree on how to transfer data.   All those raspberry-sounding noises you hear when you dial up using a modem are the handshake.  Modem1 sends a message to Modem2, and they figure out which maximum baud rate they can mutually handle and some other stuff about how they connect to each other, then they complete the connection.  2)  In B2B exchanges,  a "handshake" may refers to the signal sent by a receiving computer that lets the sending computer know that a transmission was successfully received and may further refer to a functional acknowledgment-type message (various B2B standards use this type of message) that indicates whether or not the transmission passed a syntactical check and compliance checking.

Hardware - The physical parts of a computers and peripherals, as opposed to the data stored on a computer or peripheral, or the software programs that run on computers and peripherals.  Computer hardware includes things like a central processing unit, memory boards, interface cables used to connect peripheral devices, the connectors that the cables connect, to, the peripheral devices themselves, such as a printer, a display device, a keyboard, and so on.

Header section - The portion of the message which precedes the actual body and trailer of the business transaction, and which contains information which relates to the entire message. Synonymous with header area.

Holy war - Arguments that involve certain basic tenets of faith, about which one cannot disagree without setting one of these off.  For example: "IBM PCs are inherently superior to Macintoshes."

Horizontal Market - In a business-to-business context, refers to the sale of goods or services to a range of companies in different market segments. These services or goods are not likely to be specific to an individual industry.

Host - Any computer system that can connect to the internet and serves as a repository for content and/or services.  The host is the server that you connect to when you use an IP address or URL.

HTTP - See HyperText Transfer Protocol.

HTTPS - HTTP on top of SSL, a secure version of the HTTP developed by Netscape.  HTTPS is more widely used than the alternative S-HTTP.  HTTPS authenticates at the server level, ensuring security between two computers, while S-HTTP secures individual messages.  Web browsers accessing a Web server that supports SSL are required to use a login, and use HTTPS protocol in URL that looks like this:

  • https://www.domain.com/

Hub - In internet technology, a hub is a device that connects several networks or machines together.  In the context of eBusiness, "hub" usually refers to a central Repository or private Exchange.   It is a web-based solution that makes it easy for trading partners to exchange data necessary to negotiate and complete eCommerce transactions.  

HyperText Markup Language (HTML) - A specification for authoring and formatting documents on the World Wide Web.  Most people now refer to those documents as "web pages".  HTML is actually an Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) DTD which specifies a finite set of tags specifying how the web page content should be displayed in a web browser.

  • In many HTML documents, you will see "<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 3.2//EN">" as the first line of the HTML page.  It says that the tags on the page are to be interpreted according to a specification called "HTML", version 3.2, and that the specification is owned by W3C.  It is usually not necessary to include this statement; by using the opening tag "<html>" the browser uses the latest HTML DTD by default.
  • The HTML DTD is the reason that the browser knows that "<b>" means "bold", otherwise the tag "<b>" would be totally meaningless. See also XML.

HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) - The default protocol used to transmit and receive hypertext files (web pages) and other hyperlinked files over the World Wide Web.   When you type a URL beginning with "http://" into your browser, or click on a link that has a "http://" at the beginning of the URL, you're actually sending an HTTP request to a Web server for a page of information or a file.  You are not necessarily logging into the server where that information resides.  Rather, the HTTP command goes to attempt to finds the requested page or file.  If an HTTP daemon is running on the computer referenced in the URL, and if the requested page or file is found, that computer's web server transmits the requested information to your browser.  Since HTTP is the default protocol for requesting web pages, in many browsers it is not necessary to type in the "http://" part at the beginning of the URL.