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EIDX Glossary

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This letter last updated 01 February 2003

T1- A type of connection line able to transmit a digital signal at 1.544Mbps (megabits per second). T1 lines often are used to link large computer networks together, such as those that make up the internet.

T3 - A type of connection line from a computer to the internet, transmitting a digital signal at 44.746Mbps (megabits per second).  The internet backbone uses T3 lines.

Tag - A unique identifier for a segment or data element. [ISO 9735]

Taxonomy - On an eCommerce site, the classification of items or services for sale. Often places similar items near each other, or as subsets in directories.

Taxpayer Identification Number - Number used by the Internal Revenue Service to identify taxpaying entities. The TIN may be an employer identification number (EIN) or social security number (SSN).

TCP/IP -  The Internet Protocol (IP) defines the rules for routing data through the internet but is unreliable and does not know how to make connections.  The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) defines rules for connections and data transmission over the Internet Protocol.  Most of the other Internet protocols then layer upon both TCP and IP. Hence, this level is frequently referred to as TCP/IP.

So what does TCP/IP do really?  Is it one thing or two?  Well, here's the scoop:

1.  An application or program launches the transmission. 

2.  TCP breaks outgoing messages or files into transmission packets or chunks of an efficient size for routing, if necessary (depends on message size). 

3. The packets contain both the sender's and the receiver's addresses.  IP routes the packets through the the necessary gateways and domains on the Internet until they arrive at the final destination.

4.  Then TCP at the receiving end reassembles the packets and delivers the reconstituted message to the program/application that performs whatever's next (such as decrypting, translating, whatever).

Technical Assessment - The process by which UN/EDIFACT Messages and supporting Directories are evaluated for conformance to syntax, message design and syntax implementation rules. Technical Assessment is performed within the Rapporteur's Teams as part of the agreed UN/EDIFACT Procedures.

TEDIS - EC initiative to promote EDI in Europe. Purpose is to extend the concept of the standardized approach of EDI to all users in business, industry and government.

Telnet - A program that lets you connect to other computers on the Internet.

Terminal - There are several methods for determining how your emulation, keystrokes and screen interact with a public-access site's operating system. Most communications programs offer a choice of "emulations" that let you mimic the keyboard that would normally be attached directly to the host-system computer.

Terms and Conditions Agreement - Describes agreed general terms of doing business, regardless of whether the business is conducted electronically or manually.  To achieve efficiency in processing, any information that is static, or is to be applied across all transactions/messages exchanged between trading partners, e.g., orders and forecasts, should be covered in a Terms and Conditions agreement or other applicable type of contract.  The TCA is not to be confused with a Trading Partner Agreement (TPA), which governs electronic messaging.  See also Collaboration Protocol Agreement.

  • For expanded definition, click here.

Third Party Logistics Provider (3PL) - A specialist in logistics who may provide a variety of services to buyers or sellers.   Examples of services (not exhaustive):

  • Storing the products of one or more sellers at strategically located warehouses, a/k/a Distribution Centers.  When the seller receives an order, they send a warehouse order to the 3PL asking them to pick and ship the goods.  In web-based commerce, the pick-and-ship order may go directly to the 3PL, and a copy to the seller.
  • Postponement services for seller's that sell configurable systems.    When a buyer places an order for a system and its optional components, the seller sends a request to the 3PL to configure and ship the system.  Configuration can be anything from packing a combination of components, to installing software and/or internal components of items.

Third-Party Service Provider - A party other than the principals that takes on one or more of the obligations of the principals in a transaction.

  • Example:  In financial business processes, a trusted partner, but not a financial institution, contracted to manipulate financial data.  Examples: outsourced payables/receivables company, accounting firms, or VANs.

Throughput - Measure of the data transfer rate through a complex communications system or of the data processing rate in a computer system.

Tightly Coupled - Describes system components - software applications or hardware - that work together and have a high dependence on one another.  When components are tightly coupled, changes to one component are likely to cause other components to be changed.  This could even lead to a domino effect where one change ends up rippling through the entire system.  See also Coupling, Loosely Coupled.

  • If software components - applications, modules, subprocesses, etc. - are "tightly coupled", there is an assumption that all components must be available for a transaction to be completed.
  • Even though two trading partners have separate back-end systems, a B2B business process could be designed to be a tightly coupled interface.  This could mean that both partners' systems need to be available to each other at the same time.  A transaction launched in one system has to be successfully processed in every software component involved in the exchange or else the transaction has be completely backed out and all the components left in a state as if the transaction had never been attempted.

TRADACOMS - Trading Data Communications Standards. Developed by ANA.

Trade Data Interchange Application Protocol (TD-AP) - An accepted method for interchange of trade data messages, based on international standards for the presentation and structuring of trade data transfers conveyed by teletransmission. Trading Partner - Either the purchaser or seller of on-line goods, services, or rights.

Trade Data Log - A collection of trade data transfers that provides a complete historical record of trade data interchanged.

Trade Data Message - Trade data exchanged between parties concerned with the conclusion or performance of a trade transaction.

Trade Data Transfer - (Also referred to as "transfer"); one or more trade data messages sent together as one unit of dispatch which includes heading and terminating data.

Trade Facilitation Organization - A national body coordinating or monitoring trade facilitation developments at national level, providing input to UN/ECE/WP.4 and disseminating information on trade facilitation developments, including UN/EDIFACT. [UN/EDIFACT Procedures]

Trade Transaction - A specific contract for the purchase and sale or supply of goods and/or services and/or other performances between the parties concerned, identified as the transaction to which a trade data mess age refers.

Trading Partner - Any organization with whom another organization has business dealings, e.g. supplier, customer, distributor.  Also, the sending and/or receiving parties involved in exchanging electronic business messages.

Trading Partner Agreement (TPA) - Agreement between trading partners that defines agreed Electronic Commerce interactions and communication procedures, such as transport protocols and the business processes, business messages and standards that will be used.  A Trading Partner Agreement may be created electronically by computing the intersection of two partners' Trading Partner Profiles.  See also Terms and Conditions Agreement, Collaboration Protocol Agreement.

  • For expanded definition, click here.

Trading Partner Profile (TPP) - Describes one trading partner's electronic trading capabilities and preferences.  A TPP is not an agreement, but can be used to create an agreement.   Messaging exchange capabilities may be described in a Collaboration Protocol Profile (CPP), which is then contained within the TPP.  A Trading Partner Agreement (TPA) may be created electronically by computing the intersection of two partners' Trading Partner Profiles.

Trading Partner Identification Number - Confidential identification number assigned by computer by the central registration site to the trading partner.

Transaction Set  - In X12, definition, in the standard syntax, of information of business or strategic significance.  Consists of a transaction set header segment, one or more data segments in a specified order, and a transaction set trailer segment. Complete business document.  Other standards such as EDIFACT, use the synonym message.

Transaction Set ID - First data element of the X12 transaction set header segment. Uniquely identifies the transaction set.

Translation - Conversion of application data from one format to another.

Translator - The term "translator" was used erroneously in the EDI world to refer to a group of programs that performed gateway functions - probably because one of the usual gateway functions is to invoke the mapping software.  The term has also been used more correctly to describe Translation Software, a synonym for  Mapping Software.

Transmission - Any communication by means of transmitted signals; something transmitted; message.

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) - The particular protocol for transferring information over a computer network that is at the heart of the Internet.

Transparency - In on-line trust, when two transacting entities can 'see' each other's company through open disclosure of policies, practices, terms, and conditions.

Transport Protocol - The method used to transfer a file between a host system and your computer.  There are several types, such as Kermit, YMODEM and ZMODEM.