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EIDX Glossary

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This letter last updated 08 November 2002

Unified Modeling Language (UML) - An notation standard for modeling systems, data and business processes using object-oriented techniques.  UML has become the de facto modeling standards for eBusiness standards.

Uniform Resource Indicator (URI) - A standard way of identifying and locating resources on the World Wide Web, sometimes called Universal Resource Identifier.   The most common form of URL is the web page address, which is a type of or subset of URI called "URL".  The other type of URI is a Uniform Resource Name (URN).  The URI conveys:

  • The mechanism used to access the requested resource
  • Identity (or alias) of the specific computer that the resource is located on
  • The specific filename of the resource on the specified computer
  • Example:

Uniform Resource Locator (URL) - Type of URI that identifies an address for resources on the World Wide Web.

Uniform Resource Name (URN) - Type of URI used for a persistent, location-independent resource.  A URN is like an alias for a URL, and should allow you to link to a resource by name, without knowing its location.  This is useful if the resource's URL's are not static.  It's like a search command.  The resource is registered with an agency, and the resource owner must keep the registry up-to-date.  The URN says says "find the resource" with this name, and one or more agencies should know where to find that resource.  One "best match" result may be returned or a selection possible matches.

  • One drawback might be that if you receive an XML message that references a URN, and that URN is invalid or not registered, you may not be able to identify the source of the problem URN.

Uniform Rules of Conduct for the Interchange of Trade Data (UNCID) - Uniform Rules of Conduct for the Interchange of Trade Data by Teletransmission, developed by the International Chamber of Commerce. [UN/EDIFACT Procedures]

United Nations/Economic Commission of Europe Working Party 4 (UN/ECE WP.4) - Working Party on Facilitation of International Trade Procedures, a subsidiary body of UN/ECE Committee on the Development of Trade. WP.4 includes national delegations appointed by governments and international organizations having consultative status with UN or invited by the Secretariat. It is comprised of experts on data elements and automatic data interchange (GE.1) and experts on procedures and documentation (GE.2) which are appointed by their governments or by organizations recognized by UN/ECE.

United Nations/Economic Commission of Europe (UN/ECE) - United Nations Economic Commission of Europe, one of the five regional commissions of the United Nations. It is comprised of North America, Western Europe and Eastern Europe. Headquarters are in Geneva . [UN/EDIFACT Procedures]

United Nations/EDI For Administration, Commerce and Trade (UN/EDIFACT) - United Nations rules for Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport. They comprise a set of standards, directories and guidelines for the electronic interchange of structured data, and in particular that related to trade in goods or services, between independent computerized information systems. Recommended within the framework of the United Nations, the rules are approved and published by the UN/ECE in the United Nations Trade Data Interchange Directory (UNTDID) and are maintained under agreed procedures.

United Nations Layout Key (UNLK) - A pro-forma document used for indicating spaces reserved for certain statements appearing in international trade documents in an integrated system. [ECE; ISO DP 6422]

United Nations Standard Message (UNSM) - An EDIFACT message type approved for international use. A UNSM is a message which:

  • has been registered, published and which is maintained by the United Nations Econo mic Commission for Europe;
  • has the values contained in the Controlling Agency, Message Type, Message Version Number and Message Release Number fields (the requirements for the use of which are specified in ISO 9735), allocated and controlled by the UN/ ECE;
  • always has the code value "UN" in the Controlling Agency field. [UN/EDIFACT Procedures]

United Nations Standard Message (UNSM) Subset - A subset of a UNSM is a message which is directly derived from an approved UNSM, has the same function as the UNSM from which it is derived, and which:

  • contains all of the groups and segments defined as having a mandatory status within the message, and the mandatory data elements within them. There shall be no change to the status, order or content of the groups, segments and composite data elements and data elements contained within the segments. (It should be noted, however, that although many UNSMs contain Conditional Groups of segments which may contain one or more mandatory segments, providing the complete conditional group is omitted from the sub-set, this does not break the rule regarding the inclusion of mandatory segments);
  • does not change the status, order or content of the segments, composite data elements and data elements in the conditional segments chosen for use from the UNSM.
  • does not add any segments, composite data elements or data elements to the message;
  • contains the identical values specified for use in the Message Type, Controlling Agency, Message Version Number and Message Release Number fields, as are specified for the UNSM from which the subset is derived. [UN/EDIFACT Procedures]

United Nations Trade Data Elements Directory (UNTDED) - Part of this directory constitutes ISO 7372. It includes the standard data elements for UN/EDIFACT and associated codes. UNTDED is jointly maintained by the UN Secretariat and ISO. [UN/EDIFACT Procedures]

United Nations Trade Data Interchange Directory (UNTDID) - See also UN/EDIFACT.  [UN/EDIFACT Procedures]  UNTDID includes:

  • the UN/EDIFACT Application Level Syntax Rules (ISO 9735);
  • the UN/EDIFACT M essage Design Guidelines (MDG);
  • the UN/EDIFACT Syntax Implementation Guidelines (SIG);
  • the UN/EDIFACT Data Element Directory, EDED (a subset of UNTDED);
  • the UN/EDIFACT Code List, EDCL;
  • the UN/EDIFACT Composite Data Element Directory, EDCD;
  • the UN/EDIFACT Segment Directory, EDSD;
  • the UN/EDIFACT United Nations Standard Message Directory (UNSM), EDMD;
  • Uniform Rules of Conduct for the Interchange of Trade Data by Teletransmission (UNCID);
  • Explanatory material.

Upload - Copy a file from your computer to a host system.

User - 1) Anyone who uses goods or services; consumer, end-user.  2) Anyone who uses a computer or computer application.  3) Anyone who uses a standard language or standard application, particular in reference to the ability to extend a language or application by creating user-defined formats, dictionaries, styles, and other parameters.

User Data Segment - A segment containing application data. [ISO 9735]

Usenet - Refers to the collection of newsgroups on the internet.

User Name - On most host systems, the first time you connect you are asked to supply a one-word user name. This can be any combination of letters and numbers.

Utility - A small helper or housekeeping program, distinct from application programs which do the main work of the computer.  Examples:  Compression programs, file finders, screen savers.