X12 - US
ANSI standard for inter-industry electronic interchange of business transactions,
managed by the ASC X.12,
hence the name "X12" for the standard. X12 is actually a family
- X12.22 Data Segment Directory
- X12.3 Data Element Dictionary
- X12.42 Cryptographic Service Message
- X12.5 Interchange Control
- X12.56 Interconnect Mailbag
- X12.58 Security Structures
- X12.6 Application Control Structure
Interchange Control Structures - X12 has its own protocol for addressing. It specifies how the
envelopes around an X12
transaction - the ISA and the GS
segments - should be formatted.
Interconnect Mailbag Control Structures - This ASC X12 standard is
designed to control the exchange of groups of X12
transaction sets between two interconnecting entities, such as two VANs.
X.25- International Standard for packet switching
A message handling service/access method and protocol for the transfer of
electronic files, an International standard for message transmission. Used
in the U.S. for e-mail messaging before internet e-mail protocols like SMTP
became widely available. Used in Europe as the primary legacy method of
transporting EDI files.
XML - Short for eXtensible Markup
Language, a specification allowing designers to create formatting
commands that enable the definition, transmission, validation, and interpretation of data
between applications and between organizations.
The XML Specification
from W3C contains syntax rules, and
definitions for only a limited number of tags that are necessary for the syntax
rules. Otherwise, the semantic meaning of XML tags is defined by standards
organizations that define B2B content
standards and by users.
A number of
organizations and users could create a tag called "<b>" and each give it a
different semantic meaning. Organization A could say that "<b>" could mean
"brown" and Organization B could say that "<b>" means "blue". In order to
interpret tags, those organizations must provide
XML Schema which specify the interpretation of the tags.
XML was designed
primarily to be machine-processable, not for human readability. XML
initiatives are part of W3C's Architecture Domain, whereas HTML-related efforts
are part of the User-Interface Domain. See also
- A mechanism for
defining and describing a class of XML documents. XML schema are more
robust that XML DTDs. Since schemas are expressed in XML, they can be
parsed by XML software. XML schema can be used to define the structures of
documents, constraints, and datatypes, which is not possible with DTDs.
However, schema can only partially describe the
semantic meaning of the elements.
Yield - The amount of something
produced. In Material Requirements
Planning, the yield associated with the component on the product's
Bill of Materials is used to determine
how many of a component to procure or fabricate.
- If Product X requires 1 each of Component A, and the
yield is 95%, this means that 5% of Component A parts fail on average as a
by-product of the manufacturing process. In order
to build 100 of product X, a quantity of 105 Component A parts should be
- If Product X requires 1 each of Component B, and the
yield is 100%, a quantity of 100 Component B parts should be procured.
- But ... if Product X itself has a yield of 95%, and the
Component B parts in the failed product can be re-used without any quality
problems, the enterprise could end up with excess inventory on hand or in
the pipeline over time. In this case, the yield for Component B
could be set to > 100% on the Bill of Materials to account for the fact
that 5 of Component B will be leftover for each 100 of Product A that is
built. If the yield of 105% is set for Component B, the system will
calculate that 95 of Component B should be procured or fabricated for
every 100 units of Product A being built.